Utilizing Cable Glands to Properly Maintain NEMA Rating in Enclosures

When it comes to designing enclosures, cable glands are a must accessory. These small accessories can make its way through into a cutout or hole on the enclosure and it can make watertight seal of the NEMA or IP rated electronic enclosure. In addition to this, the cable glands accessory will allow the companies to customize their plastic enclosure in order for the enclosure to fit the board and the application in exact way as it is designed. But this will still make sure that the electronics are cool and dry inside the electronic housing.

The cable gland contains major three parts: a body with two threaded ends, cable nut, and a nut. An enclosure manufacturing company can machine the right sized hole into any flat surface of the electronics enclosure. With this, the cable gland will then be fitted inside the hole.

Before making sure that the gland is secured inside with the nut, a rubber gasket should be readily inserted that helps in protecting the enclosure from water ingress to take place. While on the opposite side of the threaded end, there should be an O-ring that is connected through the series of teeth. The cable nut should go over the O-ring and teeth, and then eventually the screws onto the threaded end.

Once the cable nut is already tightened, it can make the O-ring seal to be sealed around the wire, that will eventually create a watertight seal. Even if each cable gland can be securely sealed around only one wire, the multiple cable glands can be utilized on each electronic enclosure once more than one wire is utilized.

There are a lot of myriad sizes of different cable glands that are readily available. How to determine if the company is selecting the proper size for cable glands? First step is to determine and know the appropriate size of the wiring that will be used on the enclosure. This makes the company to be able to select the right cable gland that will hug the wiring very closely in order to be protected from water and dust ingress. Other enclosure manufacturer offers 7 different sizes of NEMA-rated cable glands that can be fitted inside a large range of wire sizes.

On a side note or tip in selecting the right wire: the wire size should be dependent on how much power that is needed to run inside and through the unit. Once that this has been established, and the rightful cable gland size is properly selected, the engineer can now continue building the enclosure. There are valuable resources in the internet (can also be found on different company websites) about rightful wiring selection.

The additional benefit of being able to use cable glands is it can also function as a strain relief. These can protect the wiring from bending, splitting, and fraying at some certain point of entry on the enclosure.

How to Effectively Design Electrical Enclosures for Debri Ingress Protection

There are several occasions where there are thousands of custom enclosures requested by companies to have environmental resistance requirements. And majority of the time these enclosures should only need the environmental protection for their equipment. With this in mind, companies use NEMA standards to clearly explain what the enclosure should be able to do in terms of protection to have clear understanding on what level of resistance it should have in terms of dust, dirt, or water ingress. But they also clearly note that they do not need to formally meet NEMA’s standards.

On some occasions, there are companies that needs to formally meet all the NEMA requirement in which the enclosure should undergo certain testing. With this in mind, the companies send their enclosure to third-party testing facility in order form them to have the formal certification that their enclosure has meet all the necessary requirements.

Understanding NEMA Classification

The published standards NEMA has set is primarily intended to have a certain quality of standards for an electrical enclosure. This also set in palce for them to promote what standardized product specifications electrical devices might need. Needless to say, NEMA’s role is to give standards for the manufacturing companies to adhere to a certain quality classification. NEMA should be able to deal with the following goals:

  1. For the enclosure to be able tor protect the personnel from dangerous internal parts of the equipment
  2. To be able to protect the equipment inside the enclosure from the harsh environmental elements.

How to Meet NEMA requirements

  1. Metal Sheet Enclosures

Needless to say, this type of electrical enclosure should be able to give protection from dust, debris, and water splashing or dripping. The sheet metal electrical enclosures are primarily designed to be able to meet the NEMA requirements in these type of enclosures: Types 1, 2, 4, 4X and 5. There are companies that needs enclosures that is needed to be immersed in the water, this type of enclosure is not suitable to type of companies that does marine offshore operations.

  • Custom CNC machined enclosure

If a company wants an electrical enclosure that is needed to be submerged in water, this is the right type for that company. This enclosure is primarily designed to meet the following NEMA types: 1, 2, 4(X) and 5. This can also be totally sealed with the proper and right accessories. The accessory types are the: waterproof gaskets, or o-rings. These accessories are made to give enough protection from deep water immersion thus meeting the requirement for NEMA type 6 enclosure.

  • Off the Shelf (OTS) Cast Enclosures with CNC Machined customizations

This type of enclosure will also meet NEMA Types 1, 2, 4(X) and 5 easily. This type of enclosure should be watertight with the proper accessories. This enclosure should come with minimal customizations as well as cutouts. Together with the right waterproof gaskets or o-rings, this enclosure should be able to meet the NEMA type 6P.

Transactive Energy Defined for Companies and Manufacturers

In line with the recent growing interest in having transactive energy or TE (as shown in New York’s visionary discussions; lead by national labs and implemented by United States) other countries are joining in the conversation such as companies from Denmark (PowerMatcher) and Australia (Power Ledger.)

The similar and almost the same strategies are being driven by the fact that these companies came to a realization that there should be newer approaches on how to efficiently and reliably integrate the existing distribute energy resources (DERs.) In order for them to effectively adapt to several changing preferences across electricity consumers. With this in mind, TE is one of the best solution there is.

Last 2011, the GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) planned and conducted an initial workshop to discuss TE. This workshop brought together several researchers and practitionares across different companies such as: utilities, vendors, labs and academia. Ever since, TE has shown great growth in subject to the annual conferences which constitute several participants: the Smart Electric Power Alliance (SEPA) Transactive Energy working group, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Transactive Energy Challenges.

The GWAC body defined what TE is: a system composed of economic and control mechanisms that gives provision for the dynamic balance of supply and demand happening across the entire electrical infrastructure that utilizes the value as one of the key operational parameter.

However, the definition is neither a specification or a given standard. TE is an effective approach to what describes the economic and control tools for effectively managing all elements within a given grid. Whether if it is a single building or different series of interconnected, internationally located utilities. One of the key operational parameter (what we call as “value”) does not have to be entirely economic. This can serve as a personal or individual comfort or it can go as global as delivering sustainable energy that helps in the improvement of people’s lives.

With this in mind, the delivery of electricity is about having the right balance. According to the recent research done by Erich Gunther, the former GWAC chairman emeritus, one of the pesky law of physics requires generation, movement and utilization of electricity be balanced at all times. Like in governance, policy makers should show equality in historical precedent that follows existing investment as well as local views.

In terms of regional or bulk level. One of the wholesale markets shows the reliability and efficiency of this system by assigning a good financial value in addition to the balance of supply and demand. As well as measuring some of the financial cost for some of the unforeseen uncertainties that are inherent from both sides that brings power delivery. Some of these markets and reliability form structures that effectively integrates the intermittent technologies like the grid-scale renewables and storage. This maintains the availability, affordability, as well as the reliability.

The Effect of Emergence of Dry-Type Outdoor

Effect of Emergence of Dry-Type Outdoor

For decades now, the terminations of oil-filled have been the normal standard for high-voltage cables. However, being deviant from this former technology are being operated by some of the pre-molded dry-type outdoor terminations.

Last 2018, the 138kV are being pre-molded in areas where there is the existence of dry-type outdoor terminates. These are being installed across three different regions in the world for the first time ever: Ansonia, Philippines, Malaysia, Connecticut. Each of these countries is having an application of mechanical shrink installation technology to their new and existing grids.

In order to meet the increasing demand for some of the regional grid efficiency modernization. The 138kV termination brings about numerous benefits. One of which is the initial termination that being installed in some of the voltage levels that utilize the shrinkage of the installation method. The 138kV dry-type outdoor termination constitutes protection from harsh weather and the termination of this has brought great weather sheds that possibly lock out some of the environmental elements.

With this in mind, rubber construction greatly offers some great benefits. Having dry-type terminations are 20% to 30% lighter and this allows companies for easier installation. Once the system is fully tested and it has been pre-expanded within the factory, it allows the creation of straightforward installations happening in the field. And it has greatly reduced the potential of having field damage and some devastations installation errors. This no longer contains oils and these terminations brought about avoidance of field damage from having any potential leak that also requires maintenance. Because this can bring unexpected power outages.

This brings fewer parts that are needed to be installed and there are no more installation tools required. The weight has been greatly reduced, and this product should effectively and significantly decrease the risk of having field damage, installation time, and dependence on some of the jointers. This happens spontaneously while the improvement of the overall grid efficiency is happening. The flexibility and lightweight of the said equipment allow for the horizontal, vertical, and angled mounting positions. The installation of some of the oil-filled equipment usually requires machinery that is heavy in nature. This drives up some of the labor costs and it shows some limits in installation options due to the fact that the proximity to the energized overhead lines.

The installation of pre-molded dry type shows greater demand whereas the new grids are being currently developed while the level of electrification is now low. In some of the developing countries, it is easier and cost-effective option.

While there is a transition happening in the U.S. is slower, the installation in systems such as Ansonia should be the start of the beginning for the utilization of Americans and move toward the dry-type single-piece pre-molded outdoor termination. Together with the shrinkage mechanical installation method in improving grid efficiency.

Ways on Effectively Selecting Electronics Enclosure

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Ways on effectively selecting electronics enclosures, nema enclosures, 4, 4x, 6, 6p

There is once instance where a puppy playing for several us is so worn out that he was not even able to leave the couch. With this in mind, the owner was able to curl up with the puppy and make him relax without having the mind crazily roaming around the garden. While couching on the sofa, the owner was watching several commercials on TV. And it made her wonder, of all the commercials she just saw, how can customers decide on which products should they buy? Is it because of the benefits the commercial showed? How they can make sure that the product they are buying will deliver its promised benefits? Is there also a factor in what products their closest friends will recommend them? These are some of the questions the dog owner asked herself when watching those infomercials on television. 

This question also applies to the current dilemma of the companies that would like to have enclosures as a way to protect their equipment from certain elements. Designs and different classifications of sizes and colors, there is almost unlimited number of enclosures available in the market. The companies can call the manufacturing company to ask for the necessary information that they need in deciding which enclosure do they need for a certain operation task. There also customization needs a company might ask from the manufacturer. It is important to ask crucial information that will help them decide which enclosure is best suitable for them. 

With this in mind, there are two ways of making this selection easier for companies: 

Step 1: Determine the size needed for the enclosure 

To begin the decision-making process, the company should ask and determine the size of their equipment and components that will be housed inside the enclosure. Will they be needing a battery pack? If so, how many batteries does this battery pack should have? Aside from this what else does the enclosure should protect? Is it the LCDs, switches, lights? Some of the manufacturing companies offer enclosures that are easily customizable and can accommodate the needs of the companies. However, the customization of molded plastic enclosures requires a lot of time because it is time-consuming and most of the time more expensive. 

Step 2: Determine the protection needed for equipment inside

With the different needs for an electrical enclosure, the right type of enclosure to give the right protection level should be determined in making sure that the characteristics of the enclosure will solve the needs of the company. So how do you know, how to compare different type of enclosures? Yes, you need the standard that you can follow. There are 2 common standards for electrical enclosures, NEMA and IP. NEMA is commonly used in the USA, IP is usually used all around the world except in North America. The common rating is NEMA 4x enclosure or IP65 and IP66, which gives the protection to heavy rain and constructed for the outdoor environment. These enclosure are also considered as weatherproof enclosures. Of cause, there are other types that waterproof which can be submerged under the water, we will talk about that in the future article. Basing from the assembled project, the company should determine which equipment or component will be housed inside the enclosure. Also, the company should take note that they need to leave extra space inside the enclosure. Some enclosure companies make only external measurements. Once the company gives the right measurement for the enclosure that they need, they should include the thickness of the material of the enclosure in their measurement. 

Importance of Transactive Energy for Companies and Manufacturers Alike

A DER can greatly impact the distribution grid in which they are installed regardless if a device or system will be able to supply energy or electricity to the grid that can make electricity more controllable. This can bring great impact regardless and irrespective of the side – in terms of customer point connection – on which they are installed or being used. 

Today, the distribution system that was being used and utilized decades is not design for usage in large-scale deployment DERS that comes with possibility of power flowing across and from different, multiple locations. The different impacts and several challenges the expansion of DER uses are broad. The examples are: 

  1. The reliance of several customers on different utility systems might be reduced in cases where the distributed generation is currently being paired with storage and some smart inverters. In return, this may bring great effect on the utility planning, operations and potential cost. 
  2. Some of the building owners can be compensated for making the alignment of their individual values that comes with holistic and general needs for distributions systems. The needs are being indicated by the varying production and consumption. 
  3. Some of the regulators are equipped to make the recovery of the shared cost in the electricity being transported with higher chances of granularity just to meet the values needed for the voltage variability. This also increases the effect on some of the operational costs and the frequency the operation of the equipment that will eventually result to reliability. 

With this in mind, the traditional generation should and must quickly adapt to a “duck curve” of a day’s utility load and this requires a steep ramp up or down. Because of the intermittence of the DER that suddenly increases or stops because of the wind variability, cloud coverage, or even time of the day. 

In addition to this, the distribution planning should effectively address the various increased risks in some reliability and related costs in a very constructive manner. This should also meet the regulator’s requirements for having economic fairness and some of the customer’s requirements of value. 

In line of this, TE effectively provides a new set of techniques companies can utilize in order form them to address numerous challenges: 

  1. The distribution engineers must ensure a safe and reliable operations that comes with solutions. These solutions should address the wires and non-wire different alternatives. 
  2. The GWAC roadmap effectively shows the vision on how to deploy the TE systems in a larger scale in an operational element and environment within the electric power system that efficiently facilitates the integration of DERs and other dynamic end uses. The example of this would be connection within buildings. 

In conclusion, the volume and capabilities of some of the installed distribution resources are prone to increase. And the need for the partnership among concerned parties that use the distribution grid should likewise potentially increase. This would eventually result in driving a further automated and consumer-centered operations. 

How Transactive Energy Plays a Key Role in a Company’s Manufacturing Process

To find a way in creating and making the available & actual consumer benefit is very important to success. Once the consumer does not see and receive the benefits from their newly bought smart appliance, they will have decline interest in actually buying one. On the other side of the spectrum, there are limitless opportunities for the equipment makers today that can actually serve the market. The opportunities are huge and several to satisfy the customers especially in utility and some service providers. 

In the manufacturing level, the customers actually needs the following capabilities: 

  1. Get the perceived actual value the consumer has identified or determined. 
  2. Create an integration with the traditional utility and also with the other customers & service providers; and 
  3. align their values holistically with the physical requirements and economic signals of the 
  4. Make sure to align the values of the companies holistically and should be in line with other physical requirements and other economic signals that is vital in the local level. It should be definite that the utilities and other new service providers require technologies that makes this vision realistic
  5. The localized distribution should allow the grid peak power reduction in order to decrease other costs and risk that may come in equipment manufacturing. The grid resilience should be able to give response in the operational stress that is present and the speed recovery in an event of outage.  
  6. Give financial incentive to the industrial companies and the consumer alike for the grid services in response to other physical conditions, economic signals, and the consumers’ preferences should be defined to allow local activation. 
  7. Have synergy system operations with customer, utility and other devices seamlessly. This should be upgraded or rather replaced in an easy way without risking for need of outages. 

In the bulk level, the system operations will require solutions that will: 

  1. to be able to easily adapt to DER and create self-dispatched distributed resources in an efficient manner. 
  2. to be able to effectively refine several load forecast to minimize the need for the ancillary services. 
  3. give a situational awareness in grid operations level while servicing the restoration of other distributed devices; and 
  4. Have synergy of operations with the utility, service provider and the customers’ devices seamlessly. 

When it comes to the price point that the DER should decline, the consumer preference in terms of sustenance will have the local resources grow. It should not be a question once the locality incurs a need to address the identified risks. But as an industry, the response to this uncertainty should lead to the creation of the increased flexible network applicable to all networks of electricity deliverability system capable enough to have the expansion of the consumer participation and other options. 

This regulation should be able to support the ongoing development of wide customer participation and be able to effectively flex the systems to be able to achieve the desired benefits. This can also differ from the innovative solutions what will eventually appear. 

What is USMCA and Other Possible Trade Developments

The Congress in 2019 is expected to have in consideration the new U.S.–Mexico–Canada Agreement (USMCA), designed to modernize and replace the former 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It is noted in “Outlook for 116th Congress” (page 16). Today, the prospect has colors in line with the competing priorities: on the other side, there are demands for changes in the agreement between the members of the congress, on one hand the administration should provide a six-month notice of U.S. withdrawal from the NAFTA. This should effectively present congress and make them choose between USMCA and nothing. 

The USMCA has several positive provisions to give to the electro-industry but it contains elements that may probably lessen the opportunities for having cross-boarder trade possible and also with the investment. Now, NEMA works with other company members to make sure that congress understands the importance of trade agreement that exists now in electrical manufacturing plants in North America. 

The members of NEMA who were responsible for the importation of 82 types of Chinese – these items are subjected to additional tariffs were reprimanded from the planned increase in tariff starting January 1 from 10% to 255. Whilst the differences between the two countries were never resolved in terms of trade, industrial, or intellectual property policy during the meeting last December, the members of the congress agreed to lay-off the plans for further restriction in trade measures. This includes the tariff costa and the 90-day period for further evaluations.  

NEMA gave the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) on advices about the priorities that should be made between the trade agreement negotiations between Japan and European Union. The USTR Robert Lighthizer notified the congress last October 2018 about the President’s intent to have new trade negotiations between these countries: Japan, EU, and the United Kingdom. NEMA called in for possible trade agreements with the highest possible standard that builds on trade liberalization that was achieved in previous agreements. In ensuring that U.S. electro-industry exporters should gain another new market for different possibilities. 

In November 2018, a newspaper was published and managed by the World Trade Organization that mentioned numerous potential benefits for international government and traders involved in distributed ledger technology, commonly known as blockchain. This paper does include the primary value and presentation of block chain in line with the potential cost reductions that are linked to digitalization. 

The possible prospects for this trade agreement that happened between the U.S. and the United Kingdom are receded in late 2018, shortly after the trade representative from U.S. gave notification ot the congress last October about the government’s intention about initiation of negotiations. This all happened under a deal happened last November about UK’s planned withdrawal from the European Union composed of 28 members last March 29, 2019. This trade agreement with the U.S. will not take effect until 2022 or 2023. 

Transactive Energy Explained for Manufacturers

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Nema 4x rating for energy manufactures.

By definition, transactive energy or TE is a growing energy source as evidenced by New York’s top vision discussions and also in Denmark and Australia. 

Transactive Energy is one part of the big solution to come up with new approaches to integrate distributed energy resources to adapt to varying changes and preferences of electricity consumers. Engineers should come up with more efficient and reliable ways. 

Because of these developments, the GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) conducted a workshop about transactive energy that brought together different practitioners from academia, vendors, labs, and utilities. Ever since then, the transactive energy became a very powerful subject across annual conferences.  

The GWAC board members gave transactive energy its formal definition. It is the overall system of economic and control mechanisms, which allows a very good balance of supply and demand for electricity across the electrical infrastructure. This serves as one of the fundamental operational parameters. 

However, this is not to be reckoned as a specification or a standard. Transactive energy should be perceived as a good way to give definition to economic and control tools in managing the elements in a grid. Whether it can come to a form of a single building, or a series of interconnected, international utilities. One of its key operational parameters should not be economic. It can go down to its micro-level such as giving comfort to individual consumers or it can go as wide as delivering sustainable energy that can help improve people’s lives. 

In delivering electricity, it is always about having the right balance. According to the GWAC, physics require the equilibrium between generation and movement of electricity. In a similary way, the policymakers are required to balance the historical precedent, local views, and existing investments in a certain country. The consumers also need to have a good balance between the needs and desires together with the price, availability, and usability of electricity and other devices. In essence, the manufacturers need to have balanced goals for their organizations amidst some existing limitations. 

In some of the bulk or regional level, the electricity companies make sure that the efficiency and reliability of the electricity bring financial value. This is done by balancing the supply and demand as well as calculating the cost of some uncertainties. The market and the reliable structures make the integration of this technology like grid-scale renewables and storage. While doing this, they also target to maintain the availability, affordability, and reliability of the electricity being distributed. 

While in the microgrid, local, or building level, assessment should be done from the historical paradigm that is being needed or occurring. Together with the enhanced performance and with the declining cost of electricity coming from smaller-scale renewable energy sources, the lawmakers are making a way to have an efficient use and acquisition of this type of energy sources. Together with the increasing demand for electricity, the government is more keen to make the availability of these energy sources become cost-efficient. As these technologies became more and more efficient and cost-efficient, the should be a robust response in the maintenance and enhancement of safety, reliability, and distribution resilience of these energy systems.